22.28 OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING REQUIREMENTS

22.28.010 OFF-STREET PARKING FACILITIES
a. For every use, activity, or structure permitted by this Ordinance and for all buildings or structures erected in accordance therewith, there shall be provided sufficient space for access and off-street standing, parking, circulation, unloading, and loading of motor vehicles that may be expected to transport its occupants, whether as patrons, residents, customers, employees, guests, or otherwise, to an establishment, activity, or place of residence at any time under normal conditions for any purpose. When a use is expanded, accessory off-street parking and loading shall be provided in accordance with the regulations herein for the area of capacity of such expansion in combination with the previously existing uses, structure, or activity. Existing off-street parking facilities actually being used on the effective date of this Ordinance, for the parking of automobiles in connection with the operation of an existing building or use shall not be reduced to an amount less than that hereinafter required for a similar new building or use unless additional parking facilities of the same amount are provided by the methods described herein.

b. Single-Family Residential Zone Districts. Every building intended for single- family residential occupancy shall provide on the same lot with such building, off-street parking facilities in the ratio of two (2) spaces for each dwelling unit. No part of the front open space shall be intended to provide such off-street facilities.

c. Non Residential Uses of Residential Buildings. In any Zone District a residential building being used for non residential purposes, except places of public assembly as hereinafter provided, shall provide in addition to the off-street parking space or spaces for the dwelling units required under subsection (b) hereof, off-street parking in the same amounts set forth in Section 22.28.020, for that portion of the floor area which is being utilized for nonresidential purposes.

d. Methods of Providing Parking Facilities. The required off-street parking facilities for buildings used for other than residential purposes may be provided by any one, or any combination of the following methods:

1. By providing the required off-street parking on the same lot as the building served.

2. By providing the required off-street parking within three hundred feet (300') of the building being served, measured without crossing a major thoroughfare, from the nearest point of the building or use to the nearest point of the off-street parking facility.

3. By the collective provisions of the required off-street parking for two (2) or more buildings or uses, provided that the total of such off-street parking area shall not be less than the sum of the requirements of the various buildings or uses computed separately and such parking areas are within three hundred feet (300') feet of the buildings being served, measured without crossing a major thoroughfare, from the nearest point of the building or use to the nearest point of the off-street parking facility.

e. Uses Not Specifically Mentioned. For those uses not specifically mentioned, the requirements for off-street parking facilities shall be in accord with a use which the Zoning Board of Appeals considers as being most similar in nature.

f. Change in Use of Parking. Any area once designated as required off-street parking shall never be changed to any other use unless and until off-street parking facilities are provided elsewhere in accordance with this Section.

g. Zoning of Accessory Parking. All accessory parking facilities, whether provided in fulfillment of or in excess of the requirements of this Section, and whether located on the same or on a different lot from the principal use as provided herein, shall be located on property zoned within the same, or less a restrictive zoning district as the principal use served by the parking.

h. Joint Parking Facilities. Off-street parking space for separate buildings or uses or mixed uses may be provided and used collectively or jointly in any zoning district in which separate off-street parking facilities for each constituent use would be permitted, subject to the following provisions:

1. A written agreement assuring the continuing joint usage of said common parking for the combination of uses or buildings is properly drawn and executed by the parties concerned, approved as to form and execution by the Village Attorney and the Village Council, and filed and made part of the application for a building permit.

2. All parking spaces are located within three hundred (300) feet of the uses they are intended to serve as measured by the most direct pedestrian access.

3. The total number of available off-street parking spaces provided collectively for all intended uses shall equal or exceed the number required to be provided if the parking spaces were considered separately for each use.

4. The Village Council may reduce the required total number of spaces provided collectively by up to fifty (50) percent upon making a determination that the continuing parking demands of all uses to be served do not overlap and do not create an off-street parking deficiency at any time.

5. Parking spaces which are provided to meet requirements for churches, public schools, and private schools may be collectively used to meet the off-street parking requirements of related accessory uses provided that the normal hours of operation of the accessory uses do not overlap with the normal hours of operation of the principal use and an agreement per SECTION 22.28.010(h) (1) is executed by all applicable parties. {Ord. 252, 5-12-91}

i. Mixed Uses. For building or land containing more than one (1) use, the total parking requirement shall be determined to be the sum of the requirements for each use.

j. Duty of Continuing Compliance. Upon any transfer of the title to the real estate on which building or buildings are located, the transferees and the occupants shall have the continuing duty to maintain the off-street parking requirements of this Ordinance. It shall be unlawful for the owner or occupants of any building to discontinue or change, or cause the discontinuance or change of the required off-street parking without establishing, prior to such discontinuance or change, alternative off-street parking which meets the requirements of and is in compliance with this Ordinance.

22.28.020 OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS. The minimum number of off-street parking spaces by use shall be determined in accordance with the following schedule:

Land Use Category Standard Standard
a. Residential Number of Off-Street Parking Spaces Per Each Unit of Measure
1. Single family dwellings Two (2) per dwelling unit.
2. Multiple Family

One (1) per efficiency apartments.

Two (2) per one and two bedroom dwelling units.

2 1/2 per three bedrooom dwelling unit.

Three (3) per dwelling unit with four or more bedrooms.

b. Institutional  
1. Churches, temples, community centers and places of public assemly with fixed seating. One (1) per three (3) seats or six feet (6') of benches in the main unit of seating.
2. Dance halls, assembly halls, mechanical amusement arcades and similar places of public assembly not having fixed seating. One (1) per each three (3) persons allowed within a maximum occupancy as established by fire, building or health code.
3. Theaters and auditoriums. One (1) per each three (3) seats, plus one (1) additional for each two (2) employees.
4. Child care centers, nursery schools

One space for each 20 students at the facility's full capacity plus one space for each employee.

Additional spaces will be required for facility owned vehicles at one space per vehicle.

At least three spaces must be designated as a temporary drop off area and designed for safe access to the building.

5. Elementary and secondary schools One space per classroom and other activity rooms used by students plus one space for every employee plus one space for every four students of driving age.
6. Nursing homes, convalescent care housing and similar institutional uses for care of the aged. One for each four beds plus one for each employee.
7. Hospitals Two for each bed plus one per peak hour employee.
c. Office Uses  
1. General tenant offices, professional offices of lawyers, architects, engineers, urban planners, and similar professions. One for each 250 sq. ft. of Gross Leasable Area (4 per 1,000 sq. ft. GLA)
2. Banks and similar financial institutions. One for each 200 sq. ft. of gross floor area, plus six stacking spaces for each drive-in transaction window.
3. Professional offices of doctors, dentists and similar professions, and medical and dental clinics. One for each 125 sq. ft. of gross floor area(8 per 1,000 sq. ft. GFA)
4. Service offices, such as those of a realtor, insurance service center, and similar uses. One for each 200 sq. ft. of gross floor area(5 per 1,000 sq. ft.GFA)
d. Retail Sales or Services  
1a. Retail stores of 15,000 sq. ft.GFA or less, except as otherwise specified herein. One for 200 sq. ft. of gross floor area.(5 per 1,000 sq. ft, GFA)
1b. Retail stores over 15,000 sq. ft. GFA, except as otherwise specified herein.

One space for each 250 sq. ft. gross leasable area, but not less than 75 total spaces.

4.0 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. GLA

1c. Freestanding discount store over 75,000 sq. ft.

One space for each 227 sq. ft. of gross floor area

4.4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. GFA

2. Planned commercial or retail shopping centers having more than four (4) establishments.

One space for each 200 sq. ft. of gross leasable area.

5.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. GLA

3. Furniture or major appliances, household equipment, personal service shops (other than barber and beauty shops), repair shops, showroom of a plumber, decorator, electrician or a similar trade, shoe repair and other similar uses. One for each 800 sq. ft. of usable floor area, exclusive of that floor area used for processing for which one additional space shall be provided for each two persons employed therein.
4. Laundromats and self-service dry cleaning establishments. One for each two machines.
5. Barber and beauty shops. One for each employee and/or service operator, plus two for each service chair and one additional for every two stationary hair dryers.
6. Bowling Alleys. Five per alley plus such additional spaces as are required for restaurants, bars, assembly rooms and affiliated facilities.
7. Automobile service and filling stations. Two for each service bay, and one for each 200 sq. ft. of usable sales floor area; plus one for every two employees with a minimum of two spaces.
8. Auto washes. One for each employee. In addition, stacking spaces equal in number to five times the maximum capacity of the auto wash for automobiles awaiting entrance to the auto wash shall be provided. "Maximum capacity" shall mean the greatest number possible of automobiles under-going some phase of washing at the same time, which shall be determined by dividing the length of each wash line by 20 feet.
9. Mortuary establishments. One for each 50 sq. ft. of assembly room, parlor and slumber room usable floor area.
10. Public/Private Indoor recreation facilities, athletic clubs, physical exercise establishments, court recreation, health studios, sauna baths and similar uses. One per each three patrons based on maximum occupancy as established by local, county or state fire, building or health codes, whichever is greater, plus one space per employee at peak shift; plus such space as required for affiliated uses such as but not limited to restaurants, bars, pro shops, satellite therapy services, and the like.
11. Public/Private Outdoor recreation facilities such as athletic, swimming, tennis, or similar uses. One per each potential patron plus one per peak shift employee; plus such spaces as may be required for affiliated uses such as but not limited to restaurants, bars, pro shops, satellite therapy services, and the like.
12. Restaurants:  
12a. Dining room, including banquet areas. One per 65 sq. ft. of usable floor area.
12b. Lounge. One per 50 sq. ft. of usable floor area. That portion of a larger dining facility utilized for lounge shall be computed at this rate.
12c. Fast food restaurant.
One per 30 sq. ft. of usable floor area.
12d. Carry-out restaurant. One per 80 sq. ft. of usable floor area or ten spaces, whichever is greater.
12e. Drive-in restaurant. One per 30 sq. ft. of usable floor area plus ten stacking spaces for each drive-in or drive-thru transaction station.

13. Unspecified commercial.
One for each 50 sq. ft. of usable floor area, or such spaces as are required for the specified use which is most similar in nature, as determined by the Zoning Board of Appeals.
e. Wholesale and Warehouses  
1. Wholesale, storage and warehousing establishments. Five plus one for each employee in the peak working shift or one for each 1700 sq. ft. of usable floor area, whichever is greater. Any retail or service area shall be addressed separately.

{Ord. 299; 6-7-00}

22.28.030 OFF-STREET PARKING SPACE LAYOUT, STANDARDS,
CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE.

a. No building, structure, or land shall be erected or used for parking or driveway purposes of more than three required parking spaces unless a site plan has been approved by the Village Council.

b. No parking lot shall be constructed without a permit issued by the Building Official. Application for a permit shall be submitted to the Building Department in such form as may be determined by the department and shall be accompanied by at least two sets of site plans for the development of the parking lot designed in accordance with this Section.

c. The parking facilities shall not be less than the following minimum requirements:

Parking Pattern Maneuvering Lane Width Parking Space Width Parking Space Length Total Width of One Tier of Spaces Plus Maneuvering Lane Total Width of Two Tiers of Spaces Plus Maneuvering Lane
0 degrees (parallel parking) 12 ft. 8 ft. 20 ft. 20 ft. 28 ft.
30 to 53 degrees 12 ft. 9 ft. 19 ft. 32 ft. 52 ft.
54 to 74 degrees 15 ft. 9 ft. 19 ft. 36 ft. 57 ft.
75 to 90 degrees
*
20 ft. 9 ft.

19 ft.

39 ft. 58 ft.
* End islands shall be two feet shorter than adjacent parking spaces.

d. Except for parallel parking, all parking spaces shall be clearly striped with
four inch wide double lines, 23 inches apart, to facilitate movement and to help maintain an orderly parking arrangement.

e. Parking Space Standards.

1. Except for parallel parking, all parking spaces shall be nine feet in width, center to center, and 19 feet in length.

2. Off-street parking reserved for the handicapped shall be provided in accordance with the State of Michigan Barrier-Free Rules, Michigan Public Act No. 1 of 1966, as amended. {Ord. 280, 2-19-97}

Accessible Parking Spaces Per Michigan Barrier Free Design

f. Stacking spaces shall be a minimum of ten feet wide and 20 feet in length, shall not extend into any public street right-of-way and shall be distinctly separated from on-site parking so as not to interfere with ingress and egress to parking spaces.

g. Parallel parking spaces shall be 20 feet in length with a six foot maneuvering space for each two parking spaces.

h. All parking lots shall have clearly limited and defined access from roadways and said access shall not be less than 24 feet in width at the right-of-way line. Interior driveways shall also be clearly defined and not less than 12 feet wide for one-way and 20 feet wide for two-way traffic.

i. All parking spaces shall have access from an aisle on the site. Backing directly onto a street shall be prohibited.

j. The Village Council may require the posting of such traffic control signs as it deems necessary to promote vehicular and pedestrian safety.

k. Curbing shall be provided to prevent any vehicle from damaging or encroaching upon any required wall, berm, or buffer strips, upon any building adjacent to the parking lot, or upon any adjacent property. Freeway-type guard rails shall be prohibited. {Ord. 318, 9-7-04}

l. All lighting used to illuminate any off-street parking area shall comply with Section 22.08.440 for residential uses in a Residential Zone District and Section 22.09.050 for nonresidential uses in a Residential Zone District and ll development in the P-Parking, O-Office, and B-Business Districts. {Ord. 318, 9-7-04}

m. The off-street parking facilities in all non-single family residential districts shall be provided with asphalt or concrete surfacing in accordance with the Village standards. Drainage of all off-street parking facilities must be provided so as to collect and dispose of surface water so that water will not flow onto abutting properties or otherwise become a nuisance or a health hazard.

n. In order to insure pedestrian safety, sidewalks, of not less than five feet in width, may be required to separate any driveway or parking area from a building.

o. Sidewalks, not less than five feet in width, shall be constructed along the right-of-way line of all abutting streets.

p. All interior circulation routes shall have rights-of-way of a sufficient width to accommodate the vehicular traffic generated by the uses permitted in the district or adequate provision shall be made at the time of the approval of the plan for such sufficient width of rights-of-way. The right-of-way provided to satisfy this condition shall conform to the requirements of the Village, County, or State.

q. Parking spaces adjacent to interior sidewalks may have their length reduced up to two feet where adjacent curbs do not exceed four inches in height and where the adjoining sidewalk width is at least seven feet. This standard does not include those sidewalks provided along any public or private street.

r. Parking areas for all uses that shall comply with Section 22.09 SITE DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS shall meet the parking lot screening requirements of Section 22.09.040 (g). {Ord. 299; 6-7-00} {Ord. 318, 9-7-04}

22.28.050 OFF-STREET LOADING AND UNLOADING. On the same premises with every building, structure, or part thereof, erected or occupied for storage, warehouse goods, display, a department store, a wholesale store, a market, a hotel, a hospital, a mortuary, a laundry, a dry cleaning establishment, or other such similar use involving the receipt or distribution of vehicles or materials or merchandise, there shall be provided and maintained on the lot adequate space for standing, loading and unloading services adjacent to the opening used for loading and unloading in order to avoid undue interference with public use of the streets or alleys.

All such loading and unloading areas, including all access drives, shall be paved and shall be in addition to the required off-street parking area requirements.

Such loading and unloading space, unless otherwise adequately provided for, shall be an area ten feet (10') by forty feet (40') with a fourteen foot (14') height clearance and shall be provided according to the following table:

Gross Floor Area in Square Feet Loading and Unloading Spaces
Required in Terms of Square
Feet of Usable Floor Space
0 to 3,000 None
3,001 to 20,000 One (1)

20,001 to 100,000
One (1) plus one (1) for each over 20,000 square feet
100,001 or more Five (5) plus one (1) for each 40,000 square feet of excess over 100,000 square feet

No loading space may be on any street frontage and provision for handling all freight shall be on those sides of any building which do not face on any street or proposed street, except where such areas are obscured, from such street, with a solid masonry wall not less than six feet (6') in height.

22.28.070 VEHICLE STORAGE, SALE AND REPAIR PROHIBITED. The following is prohibited in all nonresidential off-street parking areas:

a. The storage of an inoperable or unlicensed motor vehicle as defined in the State of Michigan Motor Vehicle Code.

b. The storage of any recreational vehicle as defined in this ordinance.

c. The sale or offering for sale of a motor vehicle or recreational vehicle.

d. The non-emergency repair or maintenance of any vehicle. {Ord. 252, 5-12-91}